Women who are both physically active, exercising for 30 minutes daily (walking) 6 days a week and who consume 6 servings of fruits and vegetables daily can reduce their risk of recurrence of breast cancer by 50%, regardless of age, stage of disease, or body mass index. High insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels are associated with an increased breast cancer risk and/or death from the disease. Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, decreases insulin, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and can improve survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Among women who gain weight after breast cancer diagnosis, each 5-kg gain is associated with a 12% increase in death from all causes, a 13% increase in breast cancer deaths, and a 19% increase in cardiovascular disease related deaths.
Women who are categorized as obese tend to have higher biochemical markers for inflammation, including IL-6, TNF-α and VEGF. One study of 44 overweight participants compared with 24 controls incorporated intervention strategies to promote increased physical activity and diet modification over a 16 week period. Physical activity and weight loss resulted in a decrease in the inflammatory markers IL-6 and TNF-α in the intervention group.
- Greater survival after breast cancer in physically active women with high vegetable-fruit intake regardless of obesity.
- Body weight, nutritional factors and physical activity–their influence on prognosis after breast cancer diagnosis
- Effect of obesity and other lifestyle factors on mortality in women with breast cancer.
- Physical activity and survival after diagnosis of invasive breast cancer.
- Exercise in prevention and management of cancer.
- Prospective cohort study of lifetime physical activity and breast cancer survival.
- Breast cancer and the role of exercise in women.
- Randomized controlled trial of aerobic exercise on insulin and insulin-like growth factors in breast cancer survivors: the Yale Exercise and Survivorship study.
- Physical activity and breast cancer survival.
- Physical activity and risk of recurrence and mortality in breast cancer survivors: findings from the LACE study.
- Body mass index before and after breast cancer diagnosis: associations with all-cause, breast cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality.
- Physical activity, weight control, and breast cancer risk and survival: clinical trial rationale and design considerations.
- Effect of diet on excretion of estrogens in pre- and postmenopausal women.
- Effects of a weight loss intervention on body mass, fitness, and inflammatory biomarkers in overweight or obese breast cancer survivors.